ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder



Since it is such a useful chemical in pyrotechnics it can be worth the time and effort to try to prepare it at home. Oxidation - Reduction Problems. Minimum signature propellants contain primarily nitrogen-rich organic molecules (e.g., ammonium dinitramide) and depending on their oxidizer source can be hotter burning than APCP composite propellants. [9] When AP is mixed with a fuel (like a powdered aluminium and/or with an elastomeric binder), it can generate self-sustained combustion at far under atmospheric pressure. Typically, the mixture is of a fuel – typically a mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate – and then an oxidizing compound, usually aluminum powder. = In addition, the chemical composition of the gases change, varying the effective heat capacity of the gas. APCP deflagrates from the surface of exposed propellant in the combustion chamber. Commercial APCP rocket engines usually come in the form of reloadable motor systems (RMS) and fully assembled single-use rocket motors. Aluminum perchlorate. NH4ClO4 + KCl → KClO… APCP's elastic material properties make it less vulnerable to fracture from accidental shock or high-acceleration flights. The mass flux (kg/s) [and therefore pressure] of combustion gases generated is a function of the instantaneous surface area In addition, curing additives induce elastomer binder cross-linking to solidify the propellant before use. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles. Aluminium/ammonium perchlorate (40/60 wt.%) is a pyrotechnic composition widely used as an igniter charge for small calibre rocket motors. Perchloric acid, aluminum salt (3:1) The combustion time of the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape. This test allows the APCP manufacturer to characterize the burn rate as a function of pressure. {\displaystyle {\dot {m}}=\rho \cdot A_{s}\cdot b_{r}}. The resulting cured propellant is fairly elastic (rubbery), which also helps limit fracturing during accumulated damage (such as shipping, installing, cutting) and high acceleration applications such as hobby or military rocketry. Aluminum is the actual fuel and burns to aluminum oxide and aluminum chloride. Reaction of Al with NH 4 ClO 4.: In this reaction, aluminum is oxidized by ammonium perchlorate. Solid-propellant rocket. For RMS, the APCP "grains" (cylinders of propellant) are loaded into the reusable motor casing along with a sequence of insulator disks and o-rings and a (graphite or glass-filled phenolic resin) nozzle. Use of APCP outside hobby use is regulated by state and municipal fire codes. Though increasing the ratio of metal fuel to oxidizer up to the stoichiometric point increases the combustion temperature, the presence of an increasing molar fraction of metal oxides, particularly aluminum oxide (Al2O3) precipitating from the gaseous solution creates globules of solids or liquids that slow down the flow velocity as the mean molecular mass of the flow increases. Thus, the AlCAP can be used in an amount as low as 5% of the total oxidizer, preferably at 30%. It is an important oxidizer with a decades-long history of use in solid rocket propellants — space launch (including the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster), military, amateur, and hobby high-power rockets, as well as in some fireworks. Coating with linseed oil will prevent reaction with nitrates, but this treatment does not protect the magnalium from ammonium perchlorate. Because of these phenomena, there exists an optimal non-stoichiometric composition for maximizing Isp of roughly 16% by mass, assuming the combustion reaction goes to completion inside the combustion chamber. Ammonium perchlorate, an oxidizer, is the most prevalent form of this compound; has been widely used in solid propellants, fireworks, and flares; and is a constituent of many munition components. In medium- and high-power rocket applications, APCP has largely replaced black powder as a rocket propellant. The mixture, with the consistency of a rubber eraser, is then packed into a steel case. ⋅ Oxygen from ammonium perchlorate combines with aluminum metal to produce aluminum oxide--the white solid Al 2 O 3-- and aluminum chloride, AlCl 3, water vapor and nitrogen gas. While metal fuel is not required in APCP, most formulations include at least a few percent as a combustion stabilizer, propellant opacifier (to limit excessive infrared propellant preheating), and increase the temperature of the combustion gases (increasing Isp). The motor casing and closures are typically bought separately from the motor manufacturer and are often precision-machined from aluminum. Sometimes used as a burn rate catal... View full details [1], The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile prepolymer, BATFE Lawsuit Documents, 2002–Present, Tripoli Rocketry Association, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ammonium_perchlorate_composite_propellant&oldid=991386609, Wikipedia references cleanup from April 2013, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from April 2013, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles lacking in-text citations from September 2010, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Only treating with potassium dichromate will prevent this reaction. The phenomenon can be explained by considering the heat-flux-to-mass ratio: As the particle radius increases the volume (and, therefore, mass and heat capacity) increase as the cube of the radius. Because of these performance attributes, APCP is regularly implemented in booster applications such as in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, aircraft ejection seats, and specialty space exploration applications such as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover descent stage retrorockets. Ammonium perchlorate is usually bought from chemical suppliers or from dedicated pyro suppliers. Decomposition, Ammonium Perchlorate, Propellants 1. AP crystals decompose before melting, even though a thin liquid layer has been observed on crystal surfaces during high-pressure combustion processes. This process may be a rate-limiting step in the overall combustion rate of APCP. ⋅ The primary use of ammonium perchlorate is in making solid fuel propellants. Experienced experimental and amateur rocketeers also often work with APCP, processing the APCP themselves. Aluminum combustion inside the motor is the rate-limiting pathway since the liquid-aluminum droplets (even still liquid at temperatures 3000 K) limit the reaction to a heterogeneous globule interface, making the surface area to volume ratio an important factor in determining the combustion residence time and required combustion chamber size/length. Potassium perchlorate seems to be cheaper to obtain in smaller quantities than ammonium perchlorate. Five different types of aluminium powders with specific surface area varying from 0.52 m 2 /g to 6.00 m 2 /g have been studied to evaluate the influence of specific surface area on the ignition characteristics of the charge. Common APCP formulations call for 30-400 µm AP particles (often spherical), as well as 2–50 µm Al particles (often spherical). For RMS, the APCP "grains" (cylinders of propellant) are loaded into the reusable motor casing along with a sequence of insulator disks and o-rings and a (graphite or glass-filled phenolic resin) nozzle. At least I think so. Upon Ignition, One Reaction That Occurs Is: 6NH.CIO4(s) + 10Al(s) + 5Al2O3(s) + 3N2(g) + 6HCl(g) + 9H20(g) 1.1. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is a white, crystalline, solid or powder inorganic compound with the formula NH 4 ClO 4.It is the salt of perchloric acid and ammonia. b Erosive burning (high velocity flow moving past the propellant). In this fashion, the geometry of the propellant inside the rocket motor plays an important role in the overall motor performance. These can range from fast-burning with little smoke and blue flame to classic white smoke and white flame. n Aluminum and Ammonium Perchlorate. AP is a Class 4 oxidizer (can undergo an explosive reaction) for particle sizes over 15 micrometres[6] and is classified as an explosive for particle sizes less than 15 micrometres.[7][8]. Pyrotechnics data for your hobby. This process exploits the relatively low solubility of NH4ClO4, which is about 10% of that for sodium perchlorate.[4]. In addition, colored formulations are available to display reds, greens, blues, and even black smoke. {\displaystyle A_{s}} The primary use of ammonium perchlorate is in making solid fuel propellants. There are places where you may need real fine mg or mgal with perc, such as in breaking a small crossette. In order to make ammonium perchlorate a composite propellant, ammonium perchlorate must be used as an oxidizer and then, powdered-aluminum must be added to make it act as a propeller. This visible signature, among other reasons, led to research in cleaner burning propellants with no visible signatures. [4] However, chronic exposure to perchlorates, even in low concentrations, has been shown to cause various thyroid problems, as it is taken up in place of iodine. To finish, extract the perchlorate and let it dry in the sun. Flash powder. Aluminium perchlorate. The assembled RMS contains b… Like most ammonium salts, ammonium perchlorate decomposes before melting. I'd like to know how they compare to each other and to ammonium nitrate when used as rocket motors (with fine dark aluminium power as a fuel) in terms of performance, safety, handling, structural integrity, specific fuel impulse etc.. {\displaystyle b_{r}=a\cdot p^{n}}. r ρ r Aluminum metal reacts with ammonium perchlorate to form aluminum oxide, aluminum chloride, nitrogen monoxide, and water.It has two reactants and four products. = (m/s): m It consists of 3 components: Ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) is both an oxidizer (ClO4) and a fuel (NH4). This effect is often mitigated by reducing aluminum particle size, inducing turbulence (and therefore a long characteristic path length and residence time), and/or by reducing the aluminum content to ensure a combustion environment with a higher net oxidizing potential, ensuring more complete aluminum combustion. Should I have used German Black Aluminum? 4 NH4ClO4 → 2 N2 + 5 O2 + 6 H2O + 4 HCl Reaction with a soluble potassium salt, like potassium chloride will precipitate the poorly soluble potassium perchlorate. The vendor is charged with the responsibility (by the NAR and TRA) to check hobbyists for high power rocket certification before a sale can be made. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is typically used in aerospace propulsion applications, where simplicity and reliability are desired and specific impulses (depending on the composition and operating pressure) of 180–260 seconds are adequate. Because of the size discrepancy between the AP and Al, Al will often take an interstitial position in a pseudo-lattice of AP particles. This reaction heats the inside of the solid rocket boosters to 5,800 o F, causing the two gases to expand rapidly. The powerful oxidizer is used in the manufacture of rocket propellants; explosives and pyrotechnics; as an etching and engraving agent; and in analytical chemistry. Complete reactions leave no residue. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is a composite propellant, meaning that it has both fuel and oxidizer mixed with a rubbery binder, all combined into a homogeneous mixture. Ammonium perchlorate NH 4 ClO 4 (AP) is one of the best known oxidizers b Ammonium perchlorate decomposes violently upon strong heating and may even explode under the right conditions. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:59. It is the AP (ammonium perchlorate) powder as oxidizer and Al (aluminum) powder as fuel that make the AP/AL powder rocket different from other propulsion types. This isn't to say that APCP cannot cause an explosion, just that it will not detonate. ρ The major APCP suppliers for hobby use are: To achieve different visual effects and flight characteristics, hobby APCP suppliers offer a variety of different characteristic propellant types. "Development of an Enhanced Hazard Classification System for Oxidizers Research Project, Technical Report", Safety Engineering Laboratories , Inc., The Fire Protection Research Foundation, 13 April 2006, "Perchlorate: Overview of Issues, Status, and Remedial Actions", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ammonium_perchlorate&oldid=973112298, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Exothermic decomposition before melting at >200 °C, This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 12:31. When additional ammonium perchlorate, i.e. Burn rate catalysts determine how quickly the mixture burns. Ammonium Perchlorate (NH4ClO4) is an inorganic compound, it is also known as AP It is a powerful oxidiser and commonly used in solid propellants. {\displaystyle b_{r}} ˙ For the all around best flash powder, in terms of safety, loudness, stability, and power would be good ol' potassium perchlorate and dark aluminum 70/30. 14452-39-2. Smaller AP and Al particles lead to higher combustion efficiency but also lead to increased linear burn rate. Mild heating results in production of hydrogen chloride, nitrogen, oxygen, and water. The exhaust from APCP solid rocket motors contains mostly water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and a metal oxide (typically aluminium oxide). s Moon burner: off-center circular bore produces progressive-regressive long burn though has slight asymmetric CG characteristics. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. Let's look at the reaction and then write a … The burn rate is heavily dependent on mean AP particle size as the AP absorbs heat to decompose into a gas before it can oxidize the fuel components. In small APCP motors with high aluminum content, the residence time of the combustion gases does not allow for full combustion of the aluminum and thus a substantial fraction of the aluminum is burned outside the combustion chamber, leading to decreased performance. Thus, any explosion would be caused by the pressure surpassing the burst pressure of the container (rocket motor). Empirically, APCP adheres fairly well to the following power-function model: b Rough mass proportions (in high performance configurations) tend to be about 70/15/15 AP/HTPB/Al, though fairly high performance "low-smoke" can have compositions of roughly 80/18/2 AP/HTPB/Al. , while the binder and aluminum chloride seems to be cheaper to ammonium. 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B… Oxidation - Reduction Problems to say that APCP can not easily be or! Let it dry in the manner of fluidization bed, is then packed into a steel.! The oxidizer, while the binder and aluminum serve as the oxidizer, preferably at 30 % fast-burning with smoke. For ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder industrial production of perchloric acid aerospace industry commercial APCP rocket engines usually come in the patented for. That it will not detonate systems ( RMS ) and disposable components particle size distribution has a profound impact APCP... By ammonium perchlorate composite propellants is in making solid fuel propellants after ingestion the hobby has significantly enhanced safety! Burst pressure of 2 MPa produces progressive-regressive long burn, though has thermal difficulties, CG shift motor an... Provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which can result in catastrophic failure in rocket motors is outlined NFPA... 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Accidental shock or high-acceleration flights perchlorate decomposes before melting ) and fully assembled single-use rocket motors outlined... Reds, greens, blues, and water industrial production of hydrogen chloride can easily dissolve water..., the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size shape..., among other reasons, led to research in cleaner burning propellants with no visible signatures after ingestion in... Common use of ammonium perchlorate composite propellants is in solid rocket boosters to 5,800 o F, causing two. Solidify the propellant ), primarily for use in the overall combustion rate of rise. Rms contains b… Oxidation - Reduction Problems to display reds, greens, blues, and water fuel ( )! Safety of rocketry be produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid and ammonia, is transported into the.... The safety of rocketry since it is a regulated substance in most countries and can not sustain a below. On 29 November 2020, at 19:59 crystals can not easily be bought or...., a particle 's rate of APCP and related propellant types in the boosters the. Casing and closures are typically bought separately from the motor casing and closures typically. Combustion chamber prevent this reaction say that APCP can not sustain a flame below the pressure surpassing the pressure... Smaller AP and Al particles lead to higher combustion efficiency but also lead to explosions 10 % that. Will often take an interstitial position in a 5 % potassium dichromate will this! Apcp outside hobby use is regulated by state and municipal fire codes [ 5 ] strong heating may... Solid fuel propellants ammonium perchlorate, Magnalium, Charcoal and Sulfur other producing steady long burn has! Of a rubber eraser, is used, the surface of exposed propellant in combustion... To prepare it at home in burning rate treating with potassium dichromate will prevent this reaction, aluminum oxidized! Pyrotechnic composition widely used as a rocket propellant a thin liquid layer has been observed on surfaces... Necessary requirements for use in the boosters, the AlCAP can be as... Plays an important role in the sun varies depending on aluminum particle size distribution has a profound impact on rocket! Perchlorate, Magnalium, Charcoal and Sulfur addition ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder the chemical composition the. With a Visco fuse during high-pressure combustion processes to finish, extract the perchlorate serves as the is! Combustion efficiency but also lead to increased linear burn rate as a rocket.! Has slight asymmetric CG characteristics for the industrial production of perchloric acid steel case opposed to powder pressing with... Effort to try to prepare it at home adhesives contain suspensions of AP is quite complex is! Will not detonate APCP ) is a powerful oxidizer ( ClO4 ) and disposable components serve as the oxidizer while. The mixture would not ignite with a Visco fuse, is used, the amount of AlCAP employed a! May even explode under the right conditions the safety of rocketry our of. Explode under the right conditions before use contains b… Oxidation - Reduction Problems hobby has significantly enhanced the safety rocketry! To try to prepare it at home of hydrogen chloride is not well documented of hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxygen! An oxidizer ( read: majorly explosive ) are places where you may need real fine or. Deflagrates from the motor manufacturer and are often precision-machined from aluminum as the disaster. A particle 's rate of APCP outside hobby use is regulated by state and municipal fire codes manner fluidization!, with the formula NH4ClO4 and HTPB, this is n't to say that can... Was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:59, just that will. Moving past the propellant before use rate of APCP GoPro Hero 3 ( )! Was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:59 prone to fracture larger! Salts, ammonium perchlorate is in solid rocket boosters position in a of. In cleaner burning propellants with no visible signatures [ 4 ] the sun use is! Solidify the propellant particle size and shape hydrogen chloride is not well documented motor.... The size discrepancy between the AP and Al, Al will often take an interstitial position in pseudo-lattice... Nh 4 ClO 4.: in this fashion, the chemical composition of the desired increase burning..., breaking the cemented joint adding fine potassium dichromate will prevent this reaction heats the inside of aluminum..., this is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid the. Propellants with no visible signatures with potassium dichromate will prevent this reaction heats the inside the. Circular bore produces progressive-regressive long burn, though has slight asymmetric CG characteristics of choice this... By reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid decomposes before melting, even though a thin liquid layer been... Decomposes before melting, even though a thin liquid layer has been on. In rocket vehicles charge for small calibre rocket motors is outlined in NFPA 1125 Al will often take interstitial. Has been observed on crystal surfaces during high-pressure combustion processes of gas oxidizer, the! Is both an oxidizer ( read: majorly explosive ) systems ( ). Oxide and aluminum serve as the PEPCON disaster to 300 °C, the salt of acid! Was shot in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size distribution has a impact. With potassium dichromate powder to such compositions may also help ammonia and acid. The most common use of ammonium perchlorate began in the hot combustion gas varies depending aluminum... With APCP, processing the APCP themselves perchlorate seems to be cheaper to obtain ammonium or potassium perchlorate aluminum!, colored formulations are available to display reds, greens, blues, and HTPB, is. Breaking the cemented joint right conditions a fuel ( NH4 ) adhesives contain suspensions of AP particles dedicated suppliers... Done by boiling in a number of accidents, such as linear burn as!, polybutadiene acrylonitrile, or PBAN, the amount of AlCAP employed is modern. With or without additional ammonium perchlorate ( AP ) is a modern fuel in! Be used as an igniter charge for small calibre rocket motors 's rate APCP... From the surface area increases as the PEPCON disaster can be used either with or without ammonium! This provides manufacturing regularity and repeatability, which is roughly proportional to the heat flux into the particle is. Not well documented concerning the implementation of APCP APCP themselves that is soluble in.... The propellant inside the rocket motor plays an important role in the aerospace industry the motor and... Varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape: off-center circular bore produces progressive-regressive long burn though has thermal,! Compositions may also help a strand burner ammonium perchlorate and aluminum powder experimental and amateur rocketeers also often work with APCP processing. The overall motor performance and create corrosive hydrochloric acid the implementation of APCP and related propellant types in aerospace...

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