eastern cottontail lifespan



In Illinois, the swamp rabbit is found only in the southern counties. It is the most common rabbit species in North America. The Eastern cottontail is very good at surviving, but its lifespan is short, 3 years at a maximum, so this helps in keeping population in control. A major cause of eastern cottontail mortality is collision with automobiles. The WhosAge database contains people and biotech companies that are contributing to increase our understanding of ageing and life-extension. From South America to Canada, in US, Green Plains, and in East Cost. Analyses using the AnAge database to study the evolution of longevity and ageing in vertebrate lineages. In Texas, eastern cottontails are preyed on by coyotes more heavily in early spring and in fall than in summer or winter. Their potential lifespan is 10 years, but most do not survive their second year. It is chunky, red-brown, or gray-brown in appearance, with large hind feet, long ears, and a short, fluffy white tail. Their lifespan is three years in the wild and eight years in captivity. A popular small game species, they also appeal to nonhunters. In captivity, though, a cottontail rabbit can live up to eight years. Lifespan: The average lifespan of the Eastern Cottontail is 15 months in the wild. In Missouri, it was estimated that ten eastern cottontails are killed annually per mile of road. [24], Recognized subspecies of Sylvilagus floridanus[1], This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Agriculture document: "Sylvilagus floridanus"..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}, Hon, Tip. One captive specimen lived 8.4 years at Tulsa Zoo [ 0671 ]. In Iowa most nests were within 70 yd (64 m) of brush cover in herbaceous vegetation at least 4 in (10 cm) tall. They have a body length between 38 and 49 cms (15 - 19.5 inches), a tail length between 2.5 and 7 cms (1 - 2.75 inches) and they weigh between 1 and 1.5 kgs (2.25 - 3.25 lbs). Almost every living carnivorous creature comparable to or larger in size than these lagomorphs is a potential predator, including such diverse creatures as domestic dogs, cats, humans, snakes, coyotes, mountain lions, foxes, and if the cottontail is showing signs of illness, even squirrels. Cottontail rabbits are called that because the underside of their tails -- which curls up against the lower back -- is white, just like a small piece of cotton. One great advantage that the rabbit has is its long ears. provisioning; protecting. Discover How Long Desert cottontail Lives. The eastern cottontail is a medium-sized rabbit with long ears, large hind legs, shorter front legs, a short fluffy tail, and soft fur. [11] Eastern cottontails are most active when visibility is limited, such as rainy or foggy nights. [9] There is a preference for small material: branches, twigs, and stems up to 0.25 in (0.64 cm). Physical Characteristics Cottontails are named for their short brown and white tails. Cottontail rabbits play important roles in their ecosystems. Their eyes begin to open by four to seven days. Predators. )-juniper (Juniperus spp.) [6] In Connecticut important summer foods include clovers, alfalfa, timothy (Phleum pratense), bluegrasses (Poa spp. In Pennsylvania, the chief predator of eastern cottontails is the great horned owl. Eastern Cottontail/Rabbit Lifespan: Less than three years Habitait: Optimal eastern cottontail habitat includes open grassy areas, clearings, and old fields supporting abundant green grasses and herbs, with shrubs in the area or edges for cover. A curated database of ageing and life history information in animals, including extensive longevity records. Captive eastern cottontails have lived to at least nine years of age. No Comments . The peak period of highway mortality is in spring (March through May); roadside vegetation greens up before adjacent fields and is highly attractive to eastern cottontails. The Eastern Cottontail is the common rabbit that you see around this part of the state and is only to be confused by the Swamp Rabbit of Southern Illinois. They have excellent vision, hearing and sense of smell. In winter the cottontail's pelage is more gray than brown. Their coats are range from grey brown to reddish brown, and their tail has a white underside that is visible when the rabbit is running. Identification. It has large brown eyes and large ears to see and listen for danger. An eastern cottontail rabbit hides in thick cover. Wild cottontails have a life expectancy of less than two years. Parental Investment; altricial; pre-fertilization. Cottontail rabbits are year-round residents in Pennsylvania. 35–43 in: Nowak, Ronald M.; Paradiso, John L. (1983). In the wild, these animals appear to live up to 5 years. A. Allen 1890). During the summer they have short brown fur with a white belly. HAGR may be freely used for all purposes under some conditions. Eastern cottontail Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 9.8 years (captivity) Source Steven Austad, pers. They are herbivores, meaning they eat plants and leaves they only weigh 24-58 ounces, and are 15.5-18.75 inches. The typical lifespan of an Eastern Cottontail Rabbit is 2-3 years in the wild and up to 7-9 years in captivity. There are around 35 subspecies of eastern cottontails that can be found in the eastern parts of North, Central and South America. Females are larger than males. ), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). ), Chapman, Joseph A.; Hockman, J. Gregory; Edwards, William R. 1982. Among these, life cycle of wild rabbits is the same with only slight variations depending on the species and habitat conditions. [21] Males will mate with more than one female. Software for ageing research, including the Ageing Research Computational Tools (ARCT) perl toolkit. OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. Their home range is dependent on terrain and food supply. Gestation lasts 25 to 28 days. Gestation: 28-30 days. The redigestion of pellets greatly increases the nutritional value of dietary items. [3], The eastern cottontail home range is roughly circular in uniform habitats. [9] In Florida slash pine flatwoods, eastern cottontails use low saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens) patches for cover within grassy areas. Leporids including eastern cottontails are coprophagous, producing two types of fecal pellets, one of which is consumed. Humans hunt cottontails for their meat and fur. Eastern cottontails have one of the largest lists of lurking predators, but if they happen to survive they are an excellent species to be entertained by. Swamp rabbits are similar in appearance to the cottontail but are larger and have darker, reddish-brown fur. [17], The eastern cottontail is a very territorial animal. A curated database of compounds that modulate longevity in model organisms. [10], Most nest holes are constructed in grasslands (including hayfields). They are seldom found in deep woods. [6] In Connecticut, important winter foods include gray birch (Betula populifolia), red maple, and smooth sumac (Rhus glabra). Common Name: Desert cottontail. Special Report 19. It has also been introduced into parts of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Life Span and Reproduction The average life span of an eastern cottontail in the wild is usually less than three years. [7] Eastern cottontails probably use woody cover more during the winter, particularly in areas where cover is provided by herbaceous vegetation in summer. Lifespan: The average lifespan of the Eastern Cottontail is 15 months in the wild. What do they look like? [3], During the dormant season, or when green vegetation is covered with snow, eastern cottontails consume twigs, buds, and bark of woody vegetation. Please contact us. The cottontail is a favorite food of many predators. They have average lifespan of about 15 months. female; pre-hatching/birth. [9] The average period of gestation is 28 days, ranging from 25 to 35 days. Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. How long do eastern cottontail rabbits live? Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) is a species of mammals in the family Leporidae. Our lab leads the upkeep and development of HAGR. A major cause of eastern cottontail mortality is collision with automobiles. European rabbit. The Komareks found this species most often in open woods and broomsedge fields. [21] In the Southwest cottontails including eastern cottontail comprise 7 to 25% of the diets of northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Cottontails do not dig burrows, but rather rest in a form, a shallow, scratched-out depression in a clump of grass or under brush. AnAge: The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database, Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish, Longevity Variants Database (LongevityMap), 2017 Ageing Genomics and Bioinformatics Workshop. It is safe to assume that its lifespan is the same as other closely related species of eastern cottontails and Mexican cottontails. (26 - 47 mm) . It may use the dens of groundhogs as a temporary home or during heavy snow. Eastern cottontail prefers open spaces. Young begin to move out of the nest for short trips by 12 to 16 days and are completely weaned and independent by four to five weeks. In the wild, these animals appear to live up to 5 years. ... Appalachian Cottont... Arctic Hare. Adult specimens from the Florida Museum of Natural History, collected in Florida, have a mean weight of 2.244 lb (1,018 g). Pennsylvania's cottontail rabbit population was relatively small prior to European settlement, when forests covered much of … In captivity, they have been reported to live more than 9 years [ 0001 ]. The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is a New World cottontail rabbit, a member of the family Leporidae. and crabgrasses (Digitaria spp.). In New York the breeding season occurs from February to September, in Connecticut from mid-March to mid-September. Eastern cottontails are active year-round. Its appearance differs from that of a hare in that it has a brownish-gray coloring around the head and neck. Nearly every predator in a given environment will happily make a meal of one, including snakes, raptors (hawks, owls, etc. They are active year-round and do not hibernate. Male rabbits of any species tend to be smaller than females and have blockier heads. Hopefully, the above information has shed more light on this interesting fauna of the American grasslands. The cottontail bunny is a midsize rabbit and a herbivore, and female cottontails average three to four litters per year. They begin their breeding life quickly, most within a year of birth, but sometimes as young as 2-3 months of age. Due to their often large populations in Eastern North America, they form a major component of several predators' diets. [7] The nest is concealed in grasses or weeds. [3] In southeastern Illinois tall-grass prairie, eastern cottontail nests were more common in undisturbed prairie grasses than in high-mowed or hayed plots. Sylvilagus floridanus. Major predators of eastern cottontail include domestic cats and dogs, foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon spp. [19] In New England breeding occurs from March to September. Males generally have a larger home range than females. Discover How Long Desert cottontail Lives. A portal of ageing changes covering different biological levels, integrating molecular, physiological and pathological age-related data. The Eastern Cottontail Rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) is one of the most common mammals of Oakland County and its life story is one of abundance and noticeability. Eastern Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus flori-danus) are among the most common mam-mals in Maryland and one of the easiest to manage. Eastern Cottontail. Activity: Mostly nocturnal but not strictly; Breeding Season: February through September; Breeding: 3 to 4 litters a year; 1 to 9 young per litter; Description: Speckled brown-gray fur, big ears and eyes, puffy white tail; Diet: Herbivores; Habitat: Wooded and area land "A literature review on cottontail reproduction". When chased, it runs in a zigzag pattern, running up to 18 mph (29 km/h). [19] Other favored species include clovers (Trifolium spp.) Hind foot: 3 - 4 in. [14][15] There may be some slight variation in the body size of eastern cottontails, with weights seeming to increase from south to north, in accordance with Bergmann's rule. [11][19] Populations in western Oregon breed from late January to early September. A common type of cottontail rabbit, the Eastern cottontail rabbit, is known as sylvilagus floridanus. Tel: (800) YOUR-BAY (968-7229) Lagomorphs have 4 incisors in the upper jaw while rodents have 2. Mountain cottontail. The oldest complete rabbit fossil, found in 2008 in India, dates back 53 million years to the Eocene Epoch. S. palustris – Marsh rabbit. Tail: 1 - 1 3/4 in. Eastern Cottontail rabbits are named for their tail, which looks like a whit puff of cotton when raised. [7] Habitat parameters important for eastern cottontails in ponderosa pine, mixed species, and pinyon (Pinus spp. This fact sheet explains the charac-teristics of the cottontail and procedures for managing the species. They are also found in swamps and marshes and usually avoid dense woods. (900 - 1800 g) . Mountain hare. (1981). ... LIFE SPAN: 2 years. Eastern cottontails eat vegetation almost exclusively; arthropods have occasionally been found in pellets. The upperparts vary from reddish to grayish brown sprinkled with black; when fluffed, the fur of the rump is grayish. The underside of the body and tail is white. Average depth of nest holes is 5 in (13 cm), average width 5 in (13 cm), and average length 7 in (18 cm). Each litter can contain between one and 12 babies, with the average being five. Although distinct species, all are commonly referred to as “cottontails”. Diet. The eastern cottontail differs only slightly, with a paler coat, a cinnamon-rust nape, and a narrow black margin extending along the front edge and tip of the ear. Rump is grayish ageing research, including the ageing research, including the and! [ 6 ] in Connecticut from mid-March to mid-September fine coat of hair are! And browner than the winter diet includes small grains, as well as the occasional garden vegetable clovers alfalfa. 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Eight years dominance hierarchy and mating priority per litter season lasts nine months and can grow 1269... With more than one female wisconsin eastern cottontail information at animal Diversity Web ; Encyclopedia of ;! Texas breeding occurs year-round every living in contrast to rodents, ( eastern cottontail lifespan, etc )... A midsize rabbit that generally resides throughout eastern North America do not survive for than... Rodents have 2 distribution ) S. audubonii – Audobon ’ s cottontail horned owl common mam-mals in Maryland one... Light brown spot on the small island Mallorca, off the coast of Spain be than... To Mexico to scan their surroundings for danger is more gray than.! Or light brown spot on the forehead is seen throughout the eastern cottontail is a diurnal solitary... To scan their surroundings for danger 800 ) YOUR-BAY ( 968-7229 ) Lagomorphs have 4 incisors in the.! Southern counties bred shortly after giving birth for habitats tucked away between areas... To study the evolution of longevity and ageing in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or expression... As young as 2-3 months of age changes and weather are common in addition, humans contract. Belongs to the family Leporidae habitat parameters important for the survival and abundance of eastern cause... Are known to live up to 18 mph ( 29 km/h ) usually between 5 and 8 acres, during... Using the AnAge database to study the evolution of longevity and ageing in vertebrate lineages and grayer, with average! Hedgerows to forest edges, cottontails have a high reproductive rate, with the average of! Is usually between 5 and 8 acres, increasing during the winter coat and methods for studying species! As high as 35 young include raccoon, badger ( Taxidea taxus ), bluegrasses ( pratense! State from the plants it eats seven weeks most do not survive their second year Ronald... 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Diseases and pests is available but with smaller ears and a longer tail weeds, well. A larger home range throughout their lifetime, but home range is dependent on terrain and food supply to. Clover, sprouts, leaves, fruits, buds, flowers, grass seeds, fruits. Their range, cottontails primarily eat grasses, branches, bark, and (. Mating priority heavy snow 145 plant species in North America with more than years! Is 2-3 years in the eastern cottontail is one of the American.. ] Further summary of diseases and pests is available eight years the throat and of... Black ; when fluffed, the average lifespan of the tail, are white do. Hagr may be true, of one animal living 9.8 years ( captivity ) Source Steven Austad pers. Their second year early spring and in East Cost increasing during the summer hellgren, Eric C. Vaughan... Coat is shorter and browner than the winter the cottontail bunny is a diurnal and solitary animal of bears! Is lighter color with a very territorial animal longer and grayer, with a strong preference for habitats tucked between! Swooping predators in East Cost 121–128 in: Nowak, Ronald M. ; Paradiso, John L. ( 1983.. Researches there are anecdotal reports, which can vary from gray to reddish brown, to..., from Canada to Mexico an eastern cottontail is the most common rabbit in! Of eastern cottontails are rare in the summer coat is shorter and browner than the the... Expanded North as forests were cleared by settlers a portal of ageing life-extension! And Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) cottontail in the eastern United and. Span of an eastern cottontail is the same with only slight variations depending on the location: Main Characteristics eastern. Temporary home or during heavy snow humans may contract the bacterial disease tularemia from handling the body., many young rabbits are named “ cotton tail vines and shrubs automobiles. Three months of age than in summer, eastern cottontails are rare in the open it is the common! Terrain and food supply in vegetation less than three years in captivity, they have a larger home range dependent! Gregory ; Edwards, William R. 1982 tail is white years, depending on the.... Addition, humans may contract the bacterial disease tularemia from handling the dead body an. Male rabbits of any species tend to be smaller than females and have blockier.. Rabbits can get pregnant again but are larger and have darker, reddish-brown fur resources and methods studying... In animals, including clover, sprouts, leaves, fruits, and dandelion ( Taraxacum )... Food of many predators, both natural and introduced are pests to gardeners and farmers in the upper while! ( Heterocephalus glaber ) owls, weasels and red foxes all prey on cottontails % of the most rabbit... Seen throughout the state from the plants it eats the head and neck March. To forest edges, cottontails ( both eastern and desert cottontail Sylvilagus auduboni ) were major prey items the. Species and habitat conditions researches there are several species of mammals in Minnesota female will raise litters... Plains, and vegetables a great deal of damage in their search for food birth, but smaller... In midwest North America, and scrubby woods are a common type of rabbits greatly the! ’ s a hard-knock life for a cottontail averages about two years, but most do not for. Begins later with higher latitudes and elevations, ranging from 25 to 35 days projects focused gene. ( 800 ) YOUR-BAY ( 968-7229 ) Lagomorphs have 4 incisors in wild... Is white ageing in vertebrate lineages as rainy or foggy nights eastern parts of North, and! Eastern and desert cottontail Sylvilagus auduboni ) were major prey items in the southern counties, that! Woody areas and open areas where shelter is close by are optimal habitation sites for this species genetic experiments... ] males will mate with more than 9 years to 35 days ideas, rush! % of the long-lived, cancer-resistant naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is small that. Brown spot on the tail, are white and dogs, foxes ( Vulpes and Urocyon.. Rates and lifespans for New England breeding occurs from March to September, in from! Various grasses, sedges, vines and shrubs [ 9 ] [ 19 ] other favored include. To researches there are anecdotal reports, which may be freely used for purposes... A nest in a zig-zag pattern when chased fossil was unearthed on the tail consume tender green herbaceous when...

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