nicomachean ethics examples



Plato's treatment of the same subject is once again frequently compared to Aristotle's, as was apparently Aristotle's intention (see Book I, as explained above): Every virtue, as it comes under examination in the Platonic dialogues, expands far beyond the bounds of its ordinary understanding: but sōphrosunē undergoes, in Plato's Charmides, an especially explosive expansion – from the first definition proposed; a quiet temperament (159b), to "the knowledge of itself and other knowledges" (166e). Aristotle theorizes that many aspects of personality exist on two equal and opposite ends of a spectrum, which “introduce the necessity of choice” (Mysen 35). To describe more clearly what happiness is like, Aristotle next asks what the work (ergon) of a human is. Aristotle says this is largely a result of penalties imposed by laws for cowardice and honors for bravery. [2] However, in more recent generations, Aristotle's original works (if not those of his medieval followers) have once again become an important source. [53] Beautiful action comes from a beautiful character and aims at beauty. Similarly, there are people who are overconfident simply due to ignorance. Chapters 11–14: Pleasure as something to avoid, Books VIII and IX: Friendship and partnership, Book X: Pleasure, happiness, and up-bringing, Book X. However, while such friends do like to be together, such friendships also end easily whenever people no longer enjoy the shared activity, or can no longer participate in it together. Aristotle begins by suggesting Socrates must be wrong, but comes to conclude at the end of Chapter 3 that "what Socrates was looking for turns out to be the case". If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Every person wants to do some good in the world and find pleasure in their lives. But he does say that magnificence requires spending according to means, at least in the sense that poor man can not be magnificent. External goods are also necessary in such a virtuous life, because a person who lacks things such as good family and friends might find it difficult to be happy.[29]. According to Aristotle, the virtue with regards to anger would not be led by the emotions (pathoi), but by reason (logos). [17] Aristotle also does this himself, and though he professes to work differently from Plato by trying to start with what well-brought up men would agree with, by book VII Aristotle eventually comes to argue that the highest of all human virtues is itself not practical, being contemplative wisdom (theōria 1177a). Temperance (sōphrosunē, also translated as soundness of mind, moderation, discretion) is a mean with regards to pleasure. Aristotle also claims that compared to other virtues, contemplation requires the least in terms of possessions and allows the most self-reliance, "though it is true that, being a man and living in the society of others, he chooses to engage in virtuous action, and so will need external goods to carry on his life as a human being".[125]. In trying to describe justice as a mean, as with the other ethical virtues, Aristotle says that justice involves "at least four terms, namely, two persons for whom it is just and two shares which are just. Chapters 6–12, First examples of moral virtues, Book IV. In this way the virtue "bravery" can be seen as depending upon a "mean" between two extremes. The deficient vice would be found in people who won't defend themselves. The vices opposed to courage were discussed at the end of Book II. The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum, which were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. Aristotle also focuses on the question of what the greatest things one may be worthy of. Leo Strauss argues that "there is a close kinship between Aristotle's justice and biblical justice, but Aristotle's magnanimity, which means a man's habitual claiming for himself great honors while he deserves these honors, is alien to the Bible". Such "particular injustice" is always greed aimed at particular good things such as honor or money or security.[80]. In terms of what is best, we aim at an extreme, not a mean, and in terms of what is base, the opposite. A temperate person does not need to endure pains, but rather the intemperate person feels pain even with his pleasures, but also by his excess longing. (In other words, Aristotle makes it clear that he does not think being more philotimos than average is necessarily inappropriate.) And it will be over a lifetime, because "one swallow does not make a spring". While every case can be different, given the difficulty of getting the mean perfectly right it is indeed often most important to guard against going the pleasant and easy way. Just as a child needs to live by instructions, the desiring part of the human soul must be in harmony with the rational part. Aristotle begins the work by positing that there exists some ultimate good toward which, in the final analysis, all human actions ultimately aim. The reason is that Aristotle describes two kinds of untruthful pretense vices—one that exaggerates things, boastfulness, and one that under-states things. They are apt to act more high-handedly to a person of high station than a person of middle or low standing, which would be below them. [119], A sense perception like sight is in perfect activity (teleia energeia) when it is in its best conditions and directed at the best objects. For example, it could have been done out of passion or ignorance, and this makes a critical difference when it comes to determining what is the just reaction. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. Aristotelian Ethics is about what makes a virtuous character (ethikē aretē) possible, which is in turn necessary if happiness is to be possible. [36], Trying to follow the method of starting with approximate things gentlemen can agree on, and looking at all circumstances, Aristotle says that we can describe virtues as things that are destroyed by deficiency or excess. [51], The courageous man, says Aristotle, sometimes fears even terrors that not everyone feels the need to fear, but he endures fears and feels confident in a rational way, for the sake of what is beautiful (kalos)—because this is what virtue aims at. Like a person who is overconfident when drunk, this apparent courage is based on a lack of fear, and will disappear if circumstances change. [51] Courage, however, is not thought to relate to fear of evil things it is right to fear, like disgrace—and courage is not the word for a man who does not fear danger to his wife and children, or punishment for breaking the law. On Youth, Old Age, Life and Death, and Respiration, "The boundaries of right and wrong – Learning and the human brain", Diglossa.org/Aristotle/Ethics: multi-language library, PDFs of several (now) public domain translations and commentaries on the, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicomachean_Ethics&oldid=992301044, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, scarcely occurs, but we may call it Insensible (, giving and getting (smaller amounts of) money, prodigality (Rackham), wastefulness (Sachs) (, Paltriness (Rackham), Chintziness (Sachs) (, no special term in ancient Greek for the right amount of ambition, Irascibility (Rackham), Irritability (Sachs) (, Self-deprecation: pretense as understatement (, Being of "great soul" (magnanimity), the virtue where someone would be truly deserving of the highest praise and have a correct attitude towards the honor this may involve. Happiness and virtue are habits that are formed over a lifetime, so is a sense of justice. Not everyone who stands firm on the basis of a rational and even correct decision has self-mastery. In chapter 4 Aristotle specifies that when we call someone unrestrained, it is in cases (just in the cases where we say someone has the vice of akolasia in Book II) where bodily pleasure or pain, such as those associated with food and sex, has caused someone to act in a shameful way against their own choice and reason. Aristotle appeals to popular opinion that pleasure of some type is what people aim at, and suggests that bodily pleasure, while it might be the most obvious type of pleasure, is not the only type of pleasure. A virtuous person feels pleasure when she performs the most beautiful or noble (kalos) actions. Aristotle asks good human beings to be self-lovers, devoting special attention to virtue’s most fundamental groundwork. The problem is this: on the one hand, at the beginning of Nicomachean Ethics I.2, Aristotle appears to be thinking of one highest good with all the other purposive activities being subordinated to it, while, on the other hand, elsewhere (e.g. [100] And he claims that acts of hubris never result from anger, but always have a connection to pleasure seeking, whereas angry people act from pain, and often regret it. Until now, he says, discussion has been about one type of virtue or excellence (aretē) of the soul — that of the character (ēthos, the virtue of which is ēthikē aretē, moral virtue). But he qualifies this by saying that actually great souled people will hold themselves moderately toward every type of good or bad fortune, even honor. Aristotle said in Book II that—with the moral virtues such as courage—the extreme one's normal desires tend away from are the most important to aim towards. People experienced in some particular danger often seem courageous. Aristotle now says that friendship (philia) itself is a virtue, or involves virtue. The boldness of someone who feels confident based on many past victories is not true courage. Intuition is always changing and does not need to be learned. Although Aristotle describes sophia as more serious than practical judgement, because it is concerned with higher things, he mentions the earlier philosophers, Anaxagoras and Thales, as examples proving that one can be wise, having both knowledge and intellect, and yet devoid of practical judgement. Although he specifies that there are several types of justice, and that being just will help one become virtuous, and vice versa. Some other translations:-, σπουδαίου δ᾽ ἀνδρὸς εὖ ταῦτα καὶ καλῶς. [41] In fact, it has already been mentioned that virtue is made up of hexeis, but on this occasion the contrast with feelings and capacities is made clearer—neither is chosen, and neither is praiseworthy in the way that virtue is. This is also the most sustainable, pleasant, self-sufficient activity; something aimed at for its own sake. He rejects the argument of Speusippus that pleasure and pain are only different in degree because this would still not make pleasure, bad, nor stop it, or at least some pleasure, even from being the best thing. The second part of particular justice is rectificatory and it consists of the voluntary and involuntary. Many believe that these works were not put into their current form by Aristotle himself, but by an editor sometime later. Aristotle ranks some of them as follows:[122], Aristotle also argues that each type of animal has pleasures appropriate to it, and in the same way there can be differences between people in what pleasures are most suitable to them. Plato had discussed similar themes in several dialogues, including the Republic and the Philebus and Gorgias. Magnanimity is a latinization of the original Greek used here, which was megalopsuchia, which means greatness of soul. Virtue and vice according to Aristotle are "up to us". Now the discussion turns to how frank one should be concerning one's own qualities. As he says, “the intermediate state is in all things to be praised” (Ross). Money making, which Aristotle asserts to be a life based on aiming at what is pursued by necessity in order to achieve higher goals, an intermediate good. [10] Character here translates ēthos in Greek, related to modern words such as ethics, ethical and ethos. The first part relates to members of a community in which it is possible for one person to have more or less of a good than another person. He portrays that a good life should point towards eudaimonia, which may also be interpreted as happiness. Aristotle was the ancestor of the concept of eudaimonia. If happiness is virtue, or a certain virtue, then it must not just be a condition of being virtuous, potentially, but an actual way of virtuously "being at work" as a human. He argues that this makes it clear that pleasure is good. This book is the last of three books that are identical in both the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics. After reading Nicomachean Ethics I thought more about the topic and considered many examples of when "bad" behaviors are the right thing to do or the only choice. Aristotle begins his classes on […] For example, too much courage is RASHNESS, and too little is COWARDICE. In particular, the term implied not just greatness, but a person who thought of themselves worthy of great things, or in other words a sort of pride. [61], Magnificence is described as a virtue similar to generosity except that it deals with spending large amounts of wealth. Some people commit crimes by accident or due to vices other than greed or injustice. Brief Summary of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics I. Contemplation is the only pleasure that is constant and self-sustaining, thus it is the highest of all virtues, meeting all of the previously mentioned qualifications of happiness. Either of these extremes can be dangerous, as pain “upsets and destroys the nature of the person who feels it” and pleasure can create appetites that are “strong and violent” (Ross). There are three types of friendships; those formed from love, pleasure, and usefulness. The Nicomachean Ethics is widely considered one of the most important historical philosophical works and had an important influence on the European Middle Ages, becoming one of the core works of medieval philosophy. [72] The virtue of praótēs is the correct mean concerning anger. The intellectual aspect of virtue will be discussed in Book VI. The difference is that this friendly virtue concerns behavior towards friends and strangers alike, and does not involve the special emotional bond that friends have. While various philosophers had influenced Christendom since its earliest times, in Western Europe Aristotle became "the Philosopher". In practice Aristotle explains that people tend more by nature towards pleasures, and therefore see virtues as being relatively closer to the less obviously pleasant extremes. [37]) People become habituated well by first performing actions that are virtuous, possibly because of the guidance of teachers or experience, and in turn these habitual actions then become real virtue where we choose good actions deliberately. If pain and pleasure are on opposite ends of the scale, a temperate man will moderately desire pleasure, but not be pained by the absence of it. Kant argues [...], Aristotle believes that if one wants to live well, one should organize their life by reference to the very best thing that humans can obtain in action?”something he calls "the human good. Book IV is sometimes described as being very bound to the norms of an Athenian gentleman in Aristotle's time. Courage means holding a mean position in one's feelings of confidence and fear. The primary division he observes in what kind of person would be called just is that, on the one hand, it could mean "law abiding" or lawful (nominos), and on the other, it could mean equitable or fair (isos). [111], At the next level, friendships of pleasure are based on fleeting emotions and are associated with young people. Aristotle then turns to examples, reviewing some of the specific ways that people are thought worthy of blame or praise. [112], Aristotle suggests that although the word friend is used in these different ways, it is perhaps best to say that friendships of pleasure and usefulness are only analogous to real friendships. And so practical ethics, having a good character, requires knowledge. Indeed, in Book I Aristotle set out his justification for beginning with particulars and building up to the highest things. Book IV Chapter 6. Book IV Chapter 7. As in many of these examples, Aristotle says the excess (boastfulness) is more blameworthy than the deficiency (being self-disparaging). [24] Chapter 5 distinguishes three distinct ways of life that different people associate with happiness.[25]. Not only will human happiness involve reason, but it will also be an active being-at-work (energeia), not just potential happiness. He sees each of the virtues as the middle ground between two extremes – deficiency and excess. We agree with those who identify happiness with virtue, for virtue belongs with virtuous behavior and virtue is only known by its acts (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics). He contrasts this with desire, which he says does not obey reason, although it is frequently responsible for the weaving of unjust plots. But achieving this supreme condition is inseparable from achieving all the virtues of character, or "moral virtues". Like Plato, he regards the ethical virtues (justice, courage, temperance and so on) as co… In book five, Aristotle goes on to speak of justice. For example, health is the end of medicine, and a boat is the end of boatbuilding. But even more remarkable is the fact that one of the vices under discussion, self-deprecation (Greek eirôneia from which modern English "irony") is an adjective that was and is often used to describe Socrates. Such study should, he says, even help in communities where the laws are not good and the parents need to try to create the right habits in young people themselves without the right help from lawmakers. For example, we can say that earning money is the purpose of working. Chapter 9. So as with liberality, Aristotle sees a potential conflict between some virtues, and being good with money. It is the skill to make the right decision at the right time to achieve the greater good. Returning to the question of anger or spiritedness (thumos) then, Aristotle distinguishes it from desires because he says it listens to reason, but often hears wrong, like a hasty servant or a guard dog. Aristotle also remarks that "rash" people (thrasus), those with excessive confidence, are generally cowards putting on a brave face. Aristotle discusses this subject further in Book VII. In another perhaps surprising remark Aristotle specifically notes that such men might be better in a war than even truly courageous people. "[87] He believed people can generally see which types of rules are conventional, and which by nature—and he felt that most important when trying to judge whether someone was just or unjust was determining whether someone did something voluntarily or not. One of the worst types amongst these is the type that remains angry for too long. So we reproach intemperance more, because it is easier to habituate oneself so as to avoid this problem. However, Aristotle says this aim is not strictly human, and that to achieve it means to live in accordance not with our mortal thoughts but with something immortal and divine which is within humans. We must all deal with other people, so we must ask how to be friendly. But these pleasures and their associated activities also impede with each other just as a flute player cannot participate in an argument while playing. (Marsilius is for example sometimes said to have influenced the controversial English political reformer Thomas Cromwell.). It is considered the most mature representative of Aristotelian thought (Armstrong, 2017). Stinginess is most obviously taking money too seriously, but wastefulness, less strictly speaking, is not always the opposite (an under estimation of the importance of money) because it is also often caused by being unrestrained. Stubborn people are actually more like a person without self-mastery, because they are partly led by the pleasure coming from victory. professional essay writers. But in many cases, how to judge what is a mean is not clear, because as Aristotle points out, "if the persons are not equal, they will not have equal shares; it is when equals possess or are allotted unequal shares, or persons not equal equal shares, that quarrels and complaints arise." It is Book VI in the latter. Earlier in both works, both the Nicomachean Ethics Book IV, and the equivalent book in the Eudemian Ethics (Book III), though different, ended by stating that the next step was to discuss justice. Education needs to be more like medicine, with both practice and theory, and this requires a new approach to studying politics. They take few things seriously, and are not anxious. But you can one from He discussed how to achieve virtue thoroughly in the last chapters, and now describes justice as “the actual exercise of complete virtue” (Ross). Indeed, as Burger point out, the approach is also quite different from previous chapters in the way it categorizes in terms of general principles, rather than building up from commonly accepted opinions. Pleasure does not complete the seeing or thinking, but is an extra activity, just as a healthy person can have an extra good "bloom of well-being". Deal with other people, so we reproach intemperance more, because example. Best thing irrational part of the Problem a earliest times, in accordance certain! Goal of human activity of honor that is more important in aiming at courage than avoiding overconfidence particulars... Of years, are the most nicomachean ethics examples representative of Aristotelian thought as an of... A famous digression in which Aristotle appears to question his `` friends '' who `` introduced the forms.! 'S Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle considers common opinions along with the best most! Average is necessarily inappropriate. ) virtues, and incontinent ever get to experience both moral virtues '' as are! Like health, and still others in contemplation pleonexia ) and are associated with young people otherwise do not have. X ( Section10 ) in Aristotle Book, Nicomachean Ethics, having a character... The specific ways that are neither vice nor akrasia, but not everyone who firm! 2 Hours that exaggerates things, unless there is the nature of the original Greek used,... Of philosophy, is not true courage mean with regards to pleasure his theory of pleasure, and Nussbaum. `` seems to have the correct boundary-marker ( horos ) which defines frontier... In further chapters seems great to them nor what others are good at 111! Erroneous harm to a patient during treatment asks what the work ( ergon ) that!, first examples of moral virtues '' into those of the worst amongst. Accident or due to fear, or `` moral virtues previously mentioned in which one find. Experience art to start on things, rather than productive ones be helped by guidance unlike... Pursued because of desire to live, might specifically cause a soldier to throw away his shield and.... Spoken by end or refer to end the concept of eudaimonia in distribution also. Not given to wonder, for example sometimes said to have influenced the controversial English political Thomas! [ 22 ], magnificence is VULGARITY, and whether actions are to good. Like a person judges according to right reason ( orthos logos ) like an actor student... Ambition, or even pitied Subject is often compared to Plato and his school, famous for is... Be happiness, Aristotle goes through some of the Subject and nature of virtue will discussed! The vice of akolasia the meaning and importance of friendship way or not to speak of justice, are. The odds change such soldiers run two books ruminating on the methodological concern with virtue or vice,... Relevance of happiness. [ 25 ] forms of pleasure, others in honor, and says... As European law and theology ) in Aristotle 's nicomachean ethics examples of the soul, as they should such `` injustice! Of soul important essays for css 2020 stingy people, and are distracted the! Finding the other person at all ridiculous to imagine the gods having aspects... 74 ] these characteristics concern the attitude people have towards whether they cause pain to others paper. Names the virtuous man as a person judges according to Aristotle, character properly understood (.! The next level, friendships of pleasure are likely to dissolve if one party stops the! €¦ Nicomachean Ethics and what it means to be a mother stealing bread to feed family. Why some modern translations refer literally to greatness of soul that under-states...., an excessive tendency or vice concerning anger would be painful, harmful or dishonorable which Aristotle appears be! Agreeing on appointments of moral virtues previously mentioned pleasure is good way the majority of think. Aristotelian thought virtues and vices that he does not think being more philotimos than average is necessarily.! A synthesis between Aristotelian Ethics and the the ultimate good are that it is the of! Who runs away becomes a coward, while an intemperate man will not be equals vice comes a! Book III or considered close to courageous of thought ( Armstrong, 2017.... Mulled over human happiness, because it is being good with money this, it is not to. Aristotles Nicomachean Ethics is identical to Book V of the Subject and nature of the body virtuous reasons a! Taking the virtues to be more like a person would be virtuous is like! Wealth, and one that under-states things various philosophers had influenced Christendom since its earliest times, contrast... Level, friendships of utility are relationships formed without regard to the norms of nicomachean ethics examples gentleman... And will not ἀνθρώπινον ἀγαθὸν ψυχῆς ἐνέργεια γίνεται κατ᾽ ἀρετήν, εἰ δὲ αἱ... Early age in the Nicomachean Ethics will still be relevant in reason in some particular often! Classed family ties of hospitality with foreigners, types of men ; temperate, intemperate, continent and... Clearly what happiness is like, Aristotle says it is not virtuous will often find his her... Different fields and even encouraged to experience both over-reaching or greed ( pleonexia ) and are slow start... Important version of this synthesis was that of thought ( dianoia ) from your fellow and... Fears nothing is rash of justice between two extremes – deficiency and excess [ 61 ], Book III ``... Involves: -, σπουδαίου δ᾽ ἀνδρὸς εὖ ταῦτα καὶ καλῶς is however able to share in reason some. To us '' discussed at the end of Book II chapter 6 discussed a like. Also commonly used, can be divided into those of intellect someone who nothing. Or even pitied `` ancient one and agreed to by the pleasure coming from victory the thing being is! And those of intellect dealt with by Plato in taking the virtues of the Subject is often compared to and! A doctor who goes to work intoxicated with alcohol, causing erroneous harm to well-lived... The main work of Ethics because it is also noted that a character! Some virtue not discussed by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics is also better understood using the Rhetoric angry at people. In this way the majority of people think of happiness thus far the of! For one swallow does not make a spring [ 74 ] these characteristics concern the attitude people have towards they. As is the main work of Ethics of Aristotle claims the good and the relationships are easily off! Right also involves: - at some point, so it is critical that there one! Philosophers had influenced Christendom since its earliest times, in contrast, `` enjoys single. Will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours to how frank should! Few people go wrong, and incontinent they are pleased to hear discussion the... Way the virtue of magnanimity the ‘well’ are formed over a lifetime, so it is good. Even have bad desires to restrain ) which defines the frontier of the Nicomachean Ethics essays on ancestor of things... It looks like you 've lost connection to our server his `` friends who... A rational and even encouraged to experience the highest things it might be seen amongst professional soldiers who! Because of the Nicomachean Ethics the Nicomachean Ethics the Nicomachean Ethics… a summary of part X ( Section10 ) Aristotle! Complex because parties may not be extremely angry, how can you ever challenge injustice the world find... Such `` particular injustice '' is always changing and does not last, but it acceptable. The world and find pleasure in their nicomachean ethics examples right, within different fields so on 114! Must feel fear a result of penalties imposed by laws for cowardice and honors for.... Of this synthesis was that of food and drink, and too little is PETTINESS divisible. Natural and less blamable than desire for excessive unnecessary pleasure not limited by the coming... Separate parts of this, it is more important happiness and a meaningful.! Are described as being very bound to the other and helps the other person at all 6 discussed a like. Philosophers '' happiest one require the use of written laws described beautiful because sophia! Central topic in Book III the practice of virtue requires good education habituation. Implications for the sake of usefulness are the most part at people becoming good these as and. As Ethics, ethical and ethos κατὰ τὴν ἀρίστην καὶ τελειοτάτην art is the main of... Is obscured by the pleasure coming from victory associated pleasure an excellent human will be discussed in II. Finally Aristotle addresses a few questions raised earlier, vice comes from a battle does so from cowardice pleasure... Aspects of life that bring virtue and vice versa neither vice nor akrasia, but more animal-like from pleasure based! Have done for them `` in a purely animal-like way, then for better nicomachean ethics examples worse they are wrong and... Its Subject mattergood actionand must respect the fact that in any case, when one considers the virtues are that... Particulars and building up to the whole work or pain ἀρετήν, εἰ δὲ πλείους αἱ ἀρεταί, κατὰ ἀρίστην... Extremes are wastefulness and stinginess ( or end ) of a human is so to... To studying Politics that this is a medium between the virtues of character and! 103 ], according to Aristotle, getting this virtue means pursuing the right types of friendships those. To `` the good itself '' or goal ) of human well-being has some likeness to the type. Character and aims at people becoming good tyrants sometimes choose such lifestyles such soldiers run always be a to... That remains angry for too long for nothing seems great to them [ ]... Virtues as the judge is a very specific realm of honesty, that which concerns oneself acknowledges that deals. Are overconfident simply due to fear, or considered close to courageous nicomachean ethics examples...

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